Acquiring hepatitis C in prison: the social organisation of injecting risk;
Treloar et al. Harm Reduction Journal (2015) 12:10 DOI 10.1186/s12954-015-0045-2

The potential for transmission of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in prison settings is well established and directly associated with sharing of injecting and tattooing equipment, as well as physical violence. This study is one of the first to examine the circumstances surrounding the acquisition of HCV in the prison setting via inmates’ own accounts.


Clinical Outcomes of Hepatitis C Treatment in a Prison Setting: Feasibility and Effectiveness for Challenging Treatment Populations
Duncan Smith-Rohrberg Maru, Robert Douglas Bruce, Sanjay Basu, and Frederick L. Altice, 21Yale AIDS Program and 2Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut

More than one-third of people in the United States with hepatic C virus (HCV) infection pass through the correctional system annually. Data are lacking on outcomes of treatment with pegylated interferon plus ribavirin (PEG-RBV) in correctional settings.


Correlates of hepatitis C virus seropositivity in prison
inmates: a meta-analysis M F Vescio, B Longo, S Babudieri, G Starnini, S Carbonara, G Rezza, R Monarca

The differences in HCV seroprevalence among studies can largely be explained by differences in the proportion of inmates who are IDU and partly by differences in seroprevalence among IDU in the community


Incidence and Prevalence of Hepatitis C in Prisons and Other Closed Settings: Results of a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis:
Sarah Larney,Hannah Kopinski,Curt G. Beckwith,Nickolas D. Zaller,Don Des Jarlais,Holly Hagan,Josiah D. Rich,Brenda J. van den Bergh,and Louisa Degenhardt; HEPATOLOGY, October 2013

People detained in prisons and other closed settings are at elevated risk of infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV). We undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis with the aim of determining the rate of incident HCV infection and the prevalence of anti-HCV among detainees in closed settings.


Tattooing In Prisons—Not Such A Pretty Picture;
Margaret E. Hellard, MB BS, FRACP, PhD, FAFPHM, C. K. Aitken, BSc (Hons), PhD, and J. S. Hocking, BAppSc, MPH, MHlthSc, PhD

Tattooing in prison represents a unique combination of risk factors for blood borne virus (BBV) transmission because it is illicitly performed by untrained operators with homemade, unsterile, and frequently-shared equipment. It occurs in a setting where a high proportion of people are already infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) and other BBVs. This study measured the frequency of tattoo acquisition by prisoners inside and outside prison, and the associations between tattooing, injecting drug use, and HCV infection risk.


Treating Hepatitis C in the Prison Population Is Cost-Saving;
Jennifer A. Tan,Tom A. Joseph,and Sammy Saab; HEPATOLOGY, November 2008

The aim of this study was to determine the cost-effectiveness of hepatitis C treatment with PEG IFN and ribavirin in the U.S. prison population.


Hepatitis C In European Prisons: A Call For An Evidence-Informed Response;
Amber Arain, Geert Robaeys, Heino Stöver; BMC Infectious Diseases 2014, 14 (Suppl 6):S17

Based on a literature review to assess the spread of hepatitis C among prisoners and to learn more about the impact for the prison system, recommendations regarding hepatitis C prevention, screening and treatment in prisons have been formulated in this article.


Prisons and Drugs in Europe
The Problem and Responses 2012, EMCDDA

In-depth reviews of topical interest are published as Selected issues each year. Over the last decade, Europe has seen an increase in the size of its prison population. As of 1 September 2010, there were an estimated 635 000 inmates in prison in EU Member States. When appropriate drug services are in place, periods of incarceration may provide an opportunity for some to reduce their drug use and engage with treatment, and, in recent years, many European countries have increased the provision of services for drug users in prison, particularly substitution treatment.

Molecular epidemiology of HIV, HBV, HCV, and HTLV-1/2 in drug abuser inmates in central Javan prisons,
Indonesia: Afiono Agung Prasetyo Paramasari Dirgahayu, Yulia Sari, Hudiyono, Seiji Kageyama

This study was conducted to determine the current molecular prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis D virus (HDV), and human T lymphotropic virus-1/2 (HTLV-1/2) circulating among drug abuser inmates incarcerated in prisons located in Central Java, Indonesia.

HIV and Hepatitis C in Prisons: The Facts;
The Canadian HIV/AIDS Legal Network, 2008

This info sheet reviews some basic facts about HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) in prisons.

Hepatitis C Virus Transmission Risk in Incarcerated or Detained Populations;
Ethan K. Gough, Mirjam-Colette Kempf, Eric Chamot: Hepotology 2013

Prisons and other closed settings are important sentinel sites for understanding the epidemiology of HCV and other blood-borne infections. We commend Larney et al. for their recent review, which provides much needed global and regional estimates of HCV prevalence among detainees, confirms the occurrence of HCV transmission in closed settings and stratifies estimates by injection drug use (IDU) history. Incidence rates are critical when evaluating the full impact these settings may have on HCV epidemics

Prevalence and Epidemiological Correlates and Treatment Outcome of HCV Infection in an Italian Prison Setting;
Micaela Brandolini, Stefano Novati, Annalisa De Silvestri, Carmine Tinelli, Savino Francesco Antonio Patruno, Roberto Ranieriand Elena Seminari: BMC Public Health 2013, 13:981

The aim of the present study is to test in the feasibility of a screening programme for HCV infection in an Italian prison and to evaluate the treatment outcomes.

Prevalence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Hepatitis C Virus Among French Prison Inmates in 2010: A Challenge for Public Health Policy;
C Semaille, Y Le Strat, E Chiron, K Chemlal, M A Valantin, P Serre, L Caté, C Barbier, M Jauffret-Roustide, the Prevacar Group; Surveillance and Outbreak Reports, www.eurosurveillance.org

In this article, we report the results of a cross-sectional, single-day study based on two-stage sampling of prison establishments and inmates that was conducted in 2010. Estimates of HIV and HCV infection prevalence were produced for the entire prison population, and by sex, age and continent of birth.

Responding to Hepatitis C through the Criminal Justice System;
Josiah D. Rich, M.D., M.P.H., Scott A. Allen, M.D., and Brie A. Williams, M.D.; The New England Journal of Medicine, May 15, 2014

It is not surprising that the prevalence of HCV infection in the criminal justice population has reached epidemic proportions. One in six prisoners is infected. With more than 10 million Americans cycling in and out of prisons and jails each year, including nearly one of every three HCV-infected Americans, the criminal justice system may be the best place to efficiently identify and cure the greatest number of HCV-infected people.