Can I Drink Alcohol After Beating Hep C?
David Heitz, Hepatitis Central, 22/06/2015

Discover what factors are considered before someone is cleared to drink or not drink alcohol after being cured from HCV

HIV, Hepatitis C, and Abstinence from Alcohol Among Injection and Non-injection Drug Users;
Jennifer C. Elliott, Deborah S. Hasin,, Malka Stohl, Don C. Des Jarlais; AIDS Behav; DOI 10.1007/s10461-015-1113-z

Among non-injection drug users, those with HIV were less likely to abstain [odds ratio (OR) 0.55; adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 0.58] while those with HCV were more likely to abstain (OR 1.46; AOR 1.34). In contrast, among injection drug users, neither HIV nor HCV was associated with drinking

Increasing use of ‘party drugs’ in people living with HIV on antiretrovirals: a concern for patient safety;
Margherita Bracchi, David Stuart, Richard Castles, Saye Khoo, David Backand Marta Boffito ; AIDS 2015, 29:1585–1592

Although formal data on pharmaco- kinetic or pharmacodynamic interactions between recreational drugs and antiretroviral agents are lacking, information regarding potentially toxic interactions can be theorized or sometimes conclusions may be drawn from case studies and cohort observational studies

Pleasure and Guilt: Alcohol Use and Hepatitis C;
Magdalena Harris Qual Health Res 2010 20: 1262 originally published online 19 April 2010 DOI: 10.1177/1049732310367641

This article fills a gap in the literature by addressing the meanings and practices of alcohol use for people with hepatitis C

Differences in sociodemographic, drug use and health characteristics between never, former and current injecting, problematic hard-drug users in the Netherlands;
Petra Havinga, Claudia van der Velden, Anouk de Gee and Agnes van der Poel; Harm Reduction Journal 2014, 11:6

The purpose of this study was to determine differences in sociodemographic, drug use and health characteristics between never-injecting (NIDUs), former-injecting (FIDUs) and current-injecting drug users (IDUs) and describe injecting practices

World Hepatitis Alliance Poster
Poster showing risk of HCV infection related to drug use

Drug Interactions Between Direct-Acting anti-HCV Antivirals Sofosbuvir, Ledipasvir and HIV Antiretrovirals
Reported by Jules Levin, 15th International Workshop on Clinical Pharmacology of HIV & Hepatitis Therapy, 2014, Washington, DC

Slide presentation from Gilead showing interactions of HIV drugs to Sofosbuvir, and Ledipasvir

Drug Sharing Among Heroin Networks: Implications for HIV and Hepatitis B and C Prevention
Stephen Koester,Jason Glanz,and Anna Baro; AIDS and Behavior, Vol. 9, No. 1, March 2005

Qualitative and quantitative findings from the baseline survey of a longitudinal, sociallyfocused blood-borne disease intervention study among 611 heroin IDU in Denver indicate that high risk injection practices—the sharing of contaminated drug solution in particular—often occur as a consequence of how heroin is obtained, the quantity obtained and the setting where it is injected. Contamination occurs if a contaminated syringe is used to liquefy and apportion the shared drug.

“The First Shot”: The Context of First Injection of Illicit Drugs, Ongoing Injecting Practices, and Hepatitis C Infection in Rio De Janeiro, Brazil
Maria de Lourdes Aguiar Oliveira,Mariana A. Hacker,Sabrina Alberti Nóbrega de Oliveira,Paulo Roberto Telles,Kycia Maria Rodrigues do Ó, Clara Fumiko Tachibana Yoshida,Francisco I. Bastos; Cad. Saúde Pública, Rio de Janeiro, 22(4):861-870, abr, 2006

The context of first drug injection and its association with ongoing injecting practices and HCV infection were investigated. Among young injectors (< 30 years), those reporting sharing of needles/syringes at the first injection were about four times more likely to have been infected by HCV. To effectively curb HCV transmission among IDUs and minimize harms associated with risk behaviors, preventive strategies should target individuals initiating drug injection beginning with their very first injection and discourage the transition from non-injecting use to the self-injection of illicit drugs.

Hepatitis C Avoidance in Injection Drug Users: A Typology of Possible Protective Practices
Catherine McGowan, Magdalena Harris, Tim Rhodes; PLOS ONE | 1 October 2013 , Volume 8, Issue 10 , e77038

The study used a life history approach allowing participants to detail their lived experience both before and during the course of their injecting careers. Practices were deemed to be protective against HCV if they could be expected a priori to reduce the number of overall injections and/or the number of injections using shared injecting equipment. Participants reported engaging in various protective practices which fell into three categories identified through thematic analysis: principles about injecting, preparedness, and flexibility.

Hepatitis C Virus Maintains Infectivity for Weeks after Drying on Inanimate Surfaces at Room Temperature: Implications for Risks of Transmission
Elijah Paintsil, Mawuena Binka, Amisha Patel, Brett D. Lindenbach, and Robert Heimer; Journal of Infectious Diseases, November 23, 2013

Healthcare workers may come into contact with fomites containing infectious HCV during preparation of plasma, or following placement or removal of venous lines. Similarly, injection drugs users may come into contact with fomites. Hypothesizing that prolonged viability of HCV in fomites may contribute significantly to incidence; we determined the longevity of virus infectivity and the effectiveness of antiseptics.

High risk drug practices among gay men
Tony Kirby and Michelle Thornber-Dunwell: Vol 381 January 12, 2013

Use of crystal methamphetamine is on the rise in London’s gay scene, putting men who have sex with men at higher risk of infections

Injection Drug Use among Men who have Sex with Men
Dr Adam Bourne Sigma ResearchLondon School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine 2013

Slide Presentation

Methadone Programs Key In HCV Education
Dr. Andrew Talal, The State University at Buffalo. May 2014

People who inject drugs and are enrolled in a drug treatment program are receptive to education about, and treatment for, hepatitis C virus, according to a study by researchers at several institutions, including UB. The study was based on a survey of 320 patients enrolled in a New York City-based methadone treatment program (START Treatment and Recovery Centers). Nearly half reported they had tested positive for HCV infection.

Treatment of Opioid Dependence and Coinfection with HIV and Hepatitis C Virus in Opioid-Dependent Patients: The Importance of Drug Interactions between Opioids and Antiretroviral Agents
Elinore F. McCance-Katz; Clinical Infectious Diseases 2005; 41:S89–95

The occurrence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease and hepatitis C is common in injection drug users, most of whom are opioid dependent. The present article summarizes current knowledge about interactions between methadone and antiretroviral medications. The promising findings may simplify the treatment of opioid-dependent patients with HIV disease and should also improve clinical outcomes for persons coinfected with HIV and HCV

Prevalence of, and Risk Factors for, HIV, Hepatitis B and C Infections among Men Who Inject Image and Performance Enhancing Drugs
A Cross-Sectional Study Vivian D Hope,Jim McVeigh,Andrea Marongiu, Michael Evans-Brown,Josie Smith,Andreas Kimergård,Sara Croxford,Caryl M Beynon,John V Parry,Mark A Bellis,Fortune Ncube: BMJ Open 2013;3:e003207

The vulnerability of people who inject drugs (PWID) to HIV and other infections is widely recognised; however, studies have focused on individuals who inject psychoactive drugs (such as opiates and stimulants) rather than on those who inject drugs to enhance image and performance. The number of injectors of image and performance enhancing drugs (IPEDs) in contact with needle and syringe programmes (NSPs) has grown substantially in the UK.   The use, and particularly the injection of IPEDs has been associated with a range of harms including infections caused by bacteria and blood-borne viruses (BBVs).

Relationship Between Alcohol Use Categories and Noninvasive Markers of Advanced Hepatic Fibrosis in HIV-Infected, Chronic Hepatitis C Virus–Infected, and Uninfected Patients
Joseph K. Lim,Janet P. Tate,Shawn L. Fultz,Joseph L. Goulet,Joseph Conigliaro,Kendall J. Bryant,Adam J. Gordon,Cynthia Gibert,David Rimland,Matthew Bidwell Goetz,Marina B. Klein,David A. Fiellin,Amy C. Justice,and Vincent Lo Re III; CID 2014:58 (15 May)

It is unclear if the risk of liver disease associated with different levels of alcohol consumption is higher for patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV). We evaluated associations between alcohol use categories and advanced hepatic fibrosis, by HIV and chronic HCV status

The Role Of Surface Disinfection In Infection Prevention
Jürgen Gebel, Martin Exner, Gary French, Yves Chartier, Bärbel Christiansen, Stefanie Gemein, Peter Goroncy-Bermes, Philippe Hartemann6, Ursel Heudorf7, Axel Kramer, Jean-Yves Maillard, Peter Oltmanns, Manfred Rotter, Hans-Günther Sonntag; GMS Hygiene and Infection Control 2013, Vol. 8(1), ISSN 2196-5226

After discussion and review of current scientificliterature the authors agreed that contaminated surfaces contribute tothe transmission of pathogens and may thus pose an infection hazard.Targeted surface disinfection based on a risk profile is seen as an indispensable constituent in a multi-barrier approach of universal infectioncontrol precautions. Resistance and cross-resistance depend on the disinfectant agent as well as on the microbial species. Prudent implementation of surface disinfection regimens tested to be effective canprevent or minimize adverse effects.

Survival of Hepatitis C Virus in Syringes: Implication for Transmission among Injection Drug Users
Elijah Paintsil,Huijie He,Christopher Peters,Brett D. Lindenbach,and Robert Heimer; The Journal of Infectious Diseases 2010; 202 (1 October)

We hypothesized that the high prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) among injection drug users might be due to prolonged virus survival in contaminated syringes. The high prevalence of HCV among injection drug users may be partly due to the resilience of the virus and the syringe type. Our findings may be used to guide prevention strategies.


Inactivation and Survival of Hepatitis C Virus on
Inanimate Surfaces

Juliane Doerrbecker, Martina Friesland,Sandra Ciesek,Thomas J. Erichsen,Pedro Mateu-Gelabert,Jo¨ rg Steinmann,Jochen Steinmann,Thomas Pietschmann,and Eike Steinmann; The Journal of Infectious Diseases 2011

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) cross-contamination from inanimate surfaces or objects has been implicated in transmission of HCV in health-care settings and among injection drug users. We established HCV based carrier and drug transmission assays that simulate practical conditions to study inactivation and survival of HCV on inanimate surfaces. Viral infectivity on inanimate surfaces was detectable in the presence of serum for up to 5 days, and temperatures of about 65–70_C were required to eliminate infectivity in the drug transmission assay.