Epidemiology of hepatitis C in Europe
Francesco Negro; Digestive and Liver Disease 46 (2014) S158–S164

A thorough review is provided on the extent of the HCV epidemic across Europe, with a discussion of the most important subgroups affected, and of the risk factors of infection, both traditional and new.


The Changing Epidemiology of HCV in Europe
Juan I. Esteban Silvia Sauleda, Josep Quer, Journal of Hepatology 48 (2008) 148–162

The epidemic of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in Europe is continuously evolving and epidemiological parameters (prevalence, incidence, disease transmission patterns and genotype distribution) have changed substantially during the last 15 years. Four main factors contribute to such changes: increased blood transfusion safety, improvement of healthcare conditions, continuous expansion of intravenous drug use and immigration to Europe from endemic areas. As a result, intravenous drug use has become the main risk factor for HCV transmission, prevalent infections have increased and genotype distribution has changed and diversified.

ECDC Surveillance Report: Annual epidemiological report:
Reporting on 2011 Surveillance Data and 2012 Epidemic Intelligence Data

Enhanced European level surveillance data on infectious diseases

ECDC Technical Report:
Hepatitis B and C in the EU neighbourhood: prevalence, burden of disease and screening policies 2010

This literature review is to obtain insight into HBV and HCV prevalence, burden of disease, and national screening policies and their effectiveness in EU countries.

ECDC Technical Report:
Surveillance and prevention of hepatitis B and C in Europe 2010

This survey was carried out to map existing national surveillance systems and prevention programmes for HBV/HCV in the EU/EEA

Global Epidemiology of Hepatitis B and C in People who Inject Drugs: Results of Systematic Reviews,
Paul K Nelson, Bradley M Mathers, Benjamin Cowie, Holly Hagan, Don Des Jarlais, Danielle Horyniak, Louisa Degenhardt, The Lancet, Vol 378 August 13, 2011

Injecting drug use is an important risk factor for transmission of viral hepatitis, but detailed, transparent estimates of the scale of the issue do not exist. We estimated national, regional, and global prevalence and population size for hepatitis C virus (HCV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) in injecting drug users (IDUs).

Incident Hepatitis C Virus Infection in Men Who Have Sex With Men: A Prospective Cohort Analysis, 1984–2011;
Mallory D. Witt,Eric C. Seaberg,Annie Darilay,Stephen Young,Sheila Badri Charles R. Rinaldo,Lisa P. Jacobson,Roger Detels,and Chloe L. Thio; Clinical Infectious Diseases 2013;57(1):77–84

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is most efficiently transmitted through percutaneous routes; however, outbreaks of sexual HCV transmission among men who have sex with men (MSM) have recently been reported.

These outbreaks have been primarily in MSM infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and suggest that transmission rates may be increasing in this group, an idea supported by some but not all studies


Hepatitis C Reinfection in Injection Drug Users
Jason Grebely, Brian Conway, Jesse D. Raffa, Calvin Lai Mel Krajden, Mark W. Tyndall; Hepatology Nov 2006

Spontaneous clearance of hepatitis C (HCV) may provide protection against reinfection. In a large community-based cohort study of 3,553 inner-city residents (mainly injection drug users), we identified HCV-infected individuals in whom virological clearance had occurred and compared the rate of reinfection in this group with that observed in previously uninfected members of the same cohort.

High Incidence of Hepatitis C Virus Reinfection within a Cohort of IDUs:
J. M. Micallef,V. Macdonald,M. Jauncey,J. Amin,W. Rawlinson,I. van Beek, J.M. Kaldor, P.A. White and G.J. Dore: Journal of Viral Hepatitis, 2007, 14, 413–418

A retrospective cohort study was established of injecting drug users (IDUs) to assess evidence for HCV protective immunity through a comparison of incidence of initial HCV infection and HCV reinfection. Incidence of initial HCV infection was determined among HCV seronegative IDUs, and HCV reinfection determined among IDUs with newly acquired HCV infection, HCV viraemia and subsequent HCV RNA clearance.

Historical Epidemiology of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) in Selected Countries,
P. Bruggmann et al. Journal of Viral Hepatitis, 2014, 21, (Suppl. 1), 5–33

Chronic infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a leading indicator for liver disease. New treatment options are becoming available, and there is a need to characterize the epidemiology and disease burden of HCV. Data for prevalence, viremia, genotype, diagnosis and treatment were obtained through literature searches and expert consensus for 16 countries.

Incident Hepatitis C Virus Infection in Men Who Have Sex With Men: A Prospective Cohort Analysis From 1984 to 2011:
Witt MD, Seaberg EC, Darilay A, Young S, Badri S, Rinaldo CR, Jacobson LP, Detels R, Thio CL.; Clinical Infectious Disease 2013, Mar 26

Prospective characterization of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) transmission in both HIV-infected and -uninfected men who have sex with men (MSM) over the entire HIV epidemic has not been comprehensively conducted. To determine the trends in and risk factors associated with incident HCV in MSM since 1984, 5,310 HCV antibody (anti-HCV) negative MSM in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study were prospectively followed from 1984-2011 for anti-HCV seroconversion

Temporal changes and regional differences in treatment uptake of hepatitis C therapy in EuroSIDA:
D Grint, L Peters, C Schwarze-Zander, M Beniowski, C Pradier, M Battegay, D Jevtovic, V Soriano,
JD Lundgren, JK Rockstroh, O Kirk and A Mocroft1 for EuroSIDA in EuroCoord: HIV Medicine (2013)

This study aimed to determine the rate of HCV treatment uptake among coinfected patients in Europe.

Trends in hepatitis C virus infections among MSM attending a sexually transmitted infection clinic; 1995–2010:
Anouk T. Urbanusa,e,f, Thijs J.W. Van De Laarb, Ronald Geskusa,c,Joost W. Vanhommeriga, Martijn S. Van Rooijena, Janke Schinkeld, Titia Heijmana,f, Roel A. Coutinhoe,g and Maria Prinsa

Since 2000, there is growing evidence that hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection has emerged as a sexually transmitted infection (STI) among HIV-positive MSM. Here, we present a 15-year overview of the HCV epidemic among MSM visiting a large STI clinic in the Netherlands